Terry - from Wayne, NJ
When used in baking, whole wheat flour gives a nutty flavor and a denser texture when compared to all-purpose flour. The baked item may not rise as high when whole-wheat flour is used, which is why a mixture of both whole-wheat and all-purpose (white) flour is often substituted when baking.
For example, if the recipe calls for two cups flour, try one cup of all-purpose and one cup of whole-wheat flour. When completely substituting whole-wheat for white, use 7/8 cup whole-wheat for one cup of white flour.
The problem cooks tend to run into is that because whole wheat flour is more dense, the end product can often seem heavy or solid. So if you're using whole wheat flour, lessen the density by sifting the flour a couple of times. This helps incorporate more air into the dough.